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Fourier Analysis of Signal Dependent Noise Images
  • John Heine,
  • Erin Fowler,
  • Matthew B Schabath
John Heine
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Erin Fowler
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute
Matthew B Schabath
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute


An archetype signal dependent noise (SDN) model is a component used in modeling image acquisition systems. This component may share properties with stationary normal white noise (WN). The characterization of WN images was used as a reference for making comparisons with SDN in both the image and Fourier domains (FDs). The image domain (ID) wavelet expansion was applied to WN images (n = 1000). Expansion-image orthogonality conditions were used to model and characterize the variance decomposition in both domains. Aside from the wavelet analysis, FD components of WN were characterized with summarized distributions and probability density function modeling. SDN was constructed by either multiplying simulated mammograms (i.e., stochastic images with 1/f power spectra) or clinical mammograms (both with n = 1000) with WN. SDN was analyzed with the same techniques applied to WN. The variance decomposition for WN decreases exponentially as a function of the ID wavelet expansion level as did SDN; expansion images for both types of noise were distributed similarly in the Fourier plane. Theoretically, the Fourier transform of normal WN produces a complex normally distributed image in the FD with a uniform power spectrum distributed exponentially; SDN has similar attributes. These findings are counterintuitive as SDN can be nonstationary in the ID but have stationary attributes in the FD.
02 May 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
06 May 2024Published in TechRxiv