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4D Atlas: Statistical Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Variability in Longitudinal 3D Shape Data
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  • Marcel Padilla ,
  • Ian H. Jermyn ,
  • Sebastian Kurtek ,
  • Mohammed Bennamoun ,
  • Anuj Srivastava
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Marcel Padilla
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Ian H. Jermyn
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Sebastian Kurtek
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Mohammed Bennamoun
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Anuj Srivastava
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We propose a novel framework to learn the spatiotemporal variability in longitudinal 3D shape data sets, which contain observations of subjects that evolve and deform over time. This problem is challenging since surfaces come with arbitrary parameterizations and thus, they need to be spatially registered onto each others. Also, different deforming subjects, hereinafter referred to as 4D surfaces, evolve at different speeds and thus, they need to be temporally aligned onto each others. We solve this spatiotemporal registration problem using a Riemannian approach. We treat a 3D surface as a point in a shape space equipped with an elastic Riemmanian metric that measures the amount of bending and stretching that the surfaces undergo. A 4D surface can then be seen as a trajectory in this space. With this formulation, the statistical analysis of 4D surfaces can be cast as the problem of analyzing trajectories, or 1D curves, embedded in a nonlinear Riemannian manifold. However, performing the spatiotemporal registration, and subsequently computing statistics, on such nonlinear spaces is not straightforward as they rely on complex nonlinear optimizations. Our core contribution is the mapping of the surfaces to the space of Square-Root Normal Fields (SRNF) where the L2 metric is equivalent to the partial elastic metric in the space of surfaces. Thus, by solving the spatial registration in the SRNF space, the problem of analyzing 4D surfaces becomes the problem of analyzing trajectories embedded in the SRNF space, which has a Euclidean structure. In this paper, we develop the building blocks that enable such analysis. These include: (1) the spatiotemporal registration of arbitrarily parameterized 4D surfaces even in the presence of large elastic deformations and large variations in their execution rates, (2) the computation of geodesics between 4D surfaces, (3) the computation of statistical summaries, such as means and modes of variation, of collections of 4D surfaces, and (4) the synthesis of random 4D surfaces. We demonstrate the utility and performance of the proposed framework using 4D facial surfaces and 4D human body shapes.
01 Feb 2023Published in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence volume 45 issue 2 on pages 1335-1352. 10.1109/TPAMI.2022.3163720