loading page

Examination of Cybersickness in Virtual Reality: The Role of Individual Differences, Effects on Cognitive Functions & Motor Skills, and Intensity Differences During and After Immersion
  • Panagiotis Kourtesis ,
  • Agapi Papadopoulou ,
  • Petros Roussos
Panagiotis Kourtesis
Author Profile
Agapi Papadopoulou
Author Profile
Petros Roussos
Author Profile


Background: Given that VR is used in multiple domains, understanding the effects of cybersickness on human cognition and motor skills and the factors contributing to cybersickness is becoming increasingly important. This study aimed to explore the predictors of cybersickness and its interplay with cognitive and motor skills.
Methods: 30 participants, 20–45 years old, completed the MSSQ and the CSQ-VR, and were immersed in VR. During immersion, they were exposed to a roller coaster ride. Before and after the ride, participants responded to the CSQ-VR and performed VR-based cognitive and psychomotor tasks. After the VR session, participants completed the CSQ-VR again.
Results: Motion sickness susceptibility, during adulthood, was the most prominent predictor of cybersickness. Pupil dilation emerged as a significant predictor of cybersickness. Experience with videogaming was a significant predictor of cybersickness and cognitive/motor functions. Cybersickness negatively affected visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Overall the intensity of cybersickness’s nausea and vestibular symptoms significantly decreased after removing the VR headset.
Conclusions: In order of importance, motion sickness susceptibility and gaming experience are significant predictors of cybersickness. Pupil dilation appears to be a cybersickness biomarker. Cybersickness affects visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Concerning user experience, cybersickness and its effects on performance should be examined during and not after immersion.  
02 Feb 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
11 Feb 2024Published in TechRxiv