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Wital: A COTS WiFi Devices Based Vital Signs Monitoring System Using NLOS Sensing Model
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  • Xiang Zhang ,
  • Huan Yan ,
  • Yu Gu ,
  • Zhi Liu ,
  • Fuji Ren
Xiang Zhang
Hefei University of Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei University of Technology

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile


Vital sign (breathing and heartbeat) monitoring is essential for patient care and sleep disease prevention. Most current solutions are based on wearable sensors or cameras; however, the former could affect sleep quality, while the latter often present privacy concerns. To address these shortcomings, we propose Wital, a contactless vital sign monitoring system based on low-cost and widespread commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Wi-Fi devices. There are two challenges that need to be overcome. First, the torso deformations caused by breathing/heartbeats are weak. How can such deformations be effectively captured? Second, movements such as turning over affect the accuracy of vital sign monitoring. How can such detrimental effects be avoided? For the former, we propose a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) sensing model for modeling the relationship between the energy ratio of line-of-sight (LOS) to NLOS signals and the vital sign monitoring capability using Ricean K theory and use this model to guide the system construction to better capture the deformations caused by breathing/heartbeats. For the latter, we propose a motion segmentation method based on motion regularity detection that accurately distinguishes respiration from other motions, and we remove periods that include movements such as turning over to eliminate detrimental effects. We have implemented and validated Wital on low-cost COTS devices. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of Wital in monitoring vital signs.
Jun 2023Published in IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems volume 53 issue 3 on pages 629-641. 10.1109/THMS.2023.3264247