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Human-as-a-Robot Performance in Augmented Reality Teleultrasound
  • David Black ,
  • Hamid Moradi ,
  • Septimiu Salcudean
David Black
University of British Columbia, University of British Columbia

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Hamid Moradi
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Septimiu Salcudean
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Purpose: In “human teleoperation” [1], augmented reality (AR) and haptics are used to tightly couple an expert leader to a human follower. To determine the feasibility of human teleoperation, we quantify the abil- ity of humans to track a position and/or force trajectory via AR cues. The human response time, precision, frequency response, and step response were characterized, and several rendering methods were compared.
Methods: Volunteers (n=11) performed a series of tasks as the fol- lower in our human teleoperation system. The tasks involved tracking pre-recorded series of motions and forces, each time with a different rendering method. The order of tasks and rendering methods was ran- domized to avoid learning effects and bias. The volunteers then performed a series of frequency response tests and filled out a questionnaire.
Results: Rendering the full ultrasound probe as a position target with an error bar displaying force led to the best position and force tracking. Following force and pose simultaneously was more difficult but did not lead to significant performance degradation versus following one at a time. On average, subjects tracked positions, orientations, and forces with rms tracking errors of 6.2 ± 1.9 mm, 5.9 ± 1.9˚, 1.0 ± 0.3 N, steady-state errors of 2.8 ± 2.1 mm, 0.26 ± 0.2 N, and lags of 345.5 ± 87.6 ms respectively. Performance decreased with input frequency, until the person could no longer follow, depending on the input amplitude.
Conclusion: This paper characterizes human tracking ability in aug- mented reality human teleoperation, which shows the system’s feasi- bility and good performance, and is important for designing future human computer interfaces using augmented and virtual reality.