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Patch-Based Discriminative Learning for Remote Sensing Scene Classification
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  • Usman Muhammad ,
  • Md Ziaul Hoque ,
  • Weiqiang Wang ,
  • Mourad Oussalah
Usman Muhammad
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Md Ziaul Hoque
University of Oulu, University of Oulu

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Weiqiang Wang
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Mourad Oussalah
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The bag-of-words (BoW) model is one of the most popular representation methods for image classification. However, the lack of spatial information, the intra-class diversity, and the inter-class similarity among scene categories impair its performance in the remote-sensing domain. To alleviate these issues, this paper proposes to explore the spatial dependencies between different image regions and introduces patch-based discriminative learning (PBDL) for remote-sensing scene classification. Particularly, the proposed method employs multi-level feature learning based on small, medium, and large neighborhood regions to enhance the discriminative power of image representation. To achieve this, image patches are selected through a fixed-size sliding window and sampling redundancy, a novel concept, is developed to minimize the redundant features while sustaining the relevant features for the model. Apart from multi-level learning, we explicitly impose image pyramids to magnify the visual information of the scene images and optimize their position and scale parameters locally. Motivated by this, a local descriptor is exploited to extract multi-level and multi-scale features that we represent in terms of codewords histogram by performing k-means clustering. Finally, a simple fusion strategy is proposed to balance the contribution of individual features, and the fused features are incorporated into a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) network for classification. Experimental results on NWPU-RESISC45, AID, UC-Merced, and WHU-RS datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach not only surpasses the conventional bag-of-words approaches but also yields significantly higher classification performance than the existing state-of-the-art deep learning methods used nowadays.
22 Nov 2022Published in Remote Sensing volume 14 issue 23 on pages 5913. 10.3390/rs14235913