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Mapping of S4 Over the Arabian Peninsula During Solar Minimum
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  • Abdollah Darya ,
  • Muhammad Shaikh ,
  • Ilias Fernini ,
  • Hamid AlNaimiy
Abdollah Darya

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Muhammad Shaikh
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Ilias Fernini
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Hamid AlNaimiy
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In this letter, we study the temporal and spatial variability of ionospheric irregularities by generating high-resolution maps of the observed amplitude scintillation index (S4) using data from a multi-constellation and multi-frequency GNSS receiver. The study is located in the Arabian Peninsula region, which falls under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Even though the study was conducted during a solar minimum period, considerable pre-sunset scintillation occurrences have been observed between 15-17 local time, particularly during the winter solstices. While most scintillation occurrences have been observed at low elevation (20 to 25 degrees), a considerable number of scintillation causing ionospheric irregularities have been observed towards the north, east, and southeast of the receiver location, for elevation ranging from 40 to 60 degrees. Out of all the GNSS constellations with medium-earth-orbit (MEO) satellites, GPS was the most impacted by amplitude scintillation, while BeiDou and Galileo satellites were the least affected. It is anticipated that the patches of ionospheric irregularities reported in this work will be further enhanced as solar activity increases in the coming years. Therefore, this work can serve as a reference for future studies during periods of increased geomagnetic activity.
2022Published in IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters volume 19 on pages 1-5. 10.1109/LGRS.2022.3202245