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Analysis of laser-amplifier noise: A review of the method and its application to optical communications
  • Kazuro Kikuchi
Kazuro Kikuchi
Independent Researcher

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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This study summarizes the theory of laser-amplifier noise based on the master equation, the quantum-mechanical Langevin equation, and the rate equation. The three approaches are used differently depending on the application. Laser-amplifier noise in the direct-detection receiver is described by the master equation. Meanwhile, the quantum-mechanical Langevin equation is most effective for analyzing noise appearing in coherent optical communication systems. The rate equation approach provides a clear understanding of the intensity-noise characteristics of laser oscillators, including the amplitude squeezing.