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PU-DetNet: An Efficient Deep Unfolding aided Smart Sensing Framework for Cognitive Radio
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  • Sanket Shah ,
  • Dhaval Patel ,
  • Brijesh Soni ,
  • Miguel Lopez-Benitez ,
  • Siddhartan Govindasamy
Sanket Shah
Ahmedabad University
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Dhaval Patel
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Brijesh Soni
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Miguel Lopez-Benitez
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Siddhartan Govindasamy
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Abstract

Spectrum sensing in cognitive radio (CR) paradigm can be broadly categorized as analytical based and data-driven approaches. The former is sensitive to model inaccuracies in evolving network environment, while the latter (machine learning (ML)/deep learning (DL) based approach) suffers from high computational cost. For devices with low computational abilities, such approaches could be rendered less useful. In this context, we propose a deep unfolding architecture namely the Primary User-Detection Network (PU-DetNet) that harvests the strength of both: analytical and data-driven approaches. In particular, a technique is described that reduces computation in terms of inference time and the number of floating point operations (FLOPs). It involves binding the loss function such that each layer of the proposed architecture possesses its own loss function whose aggregate is optimized during training. Compared to the state-of-the-art, experimental results demonstrate that at SNR= -10 dB, the probability of detection is significantly improved as compared to the long short term memory (LSTM) scheme (between 39% and 56%), convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme (between 45% and 84%), and artificial neural network (ANN) scheme (between 53% and 128%) over empirical, 5G new radio, DeepSig, satellite communications, and radar datasets. The accuracy of proposed scheme also outperforms other existing schemes in terms of the F1-score. Additionally, inference time reduces by 91.69%, 90.90%, and 93.15%, while FLOPs reduces by 62.50%, 56.25%, 64.70% w.r.t. LSTM, CNN and ANN schemes, respectively. Moreover, the proposed scheme also shows improvement in throughput by 56.39%, 51.23%, and 69.52% as compared to LSTM, CNN and ANN schemes respectively, at SNR = -6 dB.