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An End-to-end Deep Learning Framework for Real-Time Denoising of Heart Sounds for Cardiac Disease Detection in Unseen Noise
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  • Shams Nafisa Ali ,
  • Samiul Based Shuvo ,
  • Taufiq Hasan ,
  • Muhammad Ishtiaque Sayeed Al-Manzo ,
  • MD. Anwarul Hasan
Shams Nafisa Ali
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Samiul Based Shuvo
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Taufiq Hasan
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Muhammad Ishtiaque Sayeed Al-Manzo
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MD. Anwarul Hasan
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Abstract

Objective: The heart sound signals captured via a digital stethoscope are often distorted by environmental and physiological noise, altering their salient and critical properties. The problem is exacerbated in crowded low-resource hospital settings with high noise levels which degrades the diagnostic performance. In this study, we present a novel deep encoder-decoder based denoising architecture (LU-Net) to suppress ambient and internal lung sound noises. Methods: Training is done using a large benchmark PCG dataset mixed with physiological noise, i.e., breathing sounds. Two different noisy datasets were prepared for experimental evaluation by mixing unseen lung sounds and hospital ambient noises with the clean heart sound recordings. We also use the inherently noisy portion of the PASCAL heart sound dataset for evaluation. Results: The proposed framework showed effective suppression of background noises in both un?seen real-world data and synthetically generated noisy heart sound recordings, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by 5.575 dB on an average using only 1.32 M parameters. The proposed model outperforms the current state-of-the-art U-Net model with an average SNR improvement of 5.613 dB and 5.537 dB in the presence of lung sound and unseen hospital noise, respectively. LU-Net also outperformed the state-of-the-art Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) by 1.750 dB and 1.748 dB for lung sound and unseen hospital noise conditions, respectively. In addition, the proposed denoising method model improves classification accuracy by 38.93% in the noisy portion of the PASCAL heart sound dataset. Conclusion: The results presented in the paper indicate that our proposed architecture demonstrated a robust denoising performance on different datasets with diverse levels and characteristics of noise. Significance: The proposed deep learning-based PCG denoising approach is a pioneering study that can significantly improve the accuracy of computer-aided auscultation systems for detecting cardiac diseases in noisy, low-resource hospitals and underserved communities.
2023Published in IEEE Access volume 11 on pages 87887-87901. 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3292551