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DD Links
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  • Abdullah S. Karar ,
  • Zaher Al-Barakah ,
  • Raymond Ghandour ,
  • Wael Hosny Fouad Aly ,
  • Zeynep Nilhan Gürkan ,
  • Bilel Neji ,
  • Samer AlKork ,
  • Julien Moussa H. Barakat
Abdullah S. Karar
American University of the Middle East, American University of the Middle East

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Zaher Al-Barakah
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Raymond Ghandour
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Wael Hosny Fouad Aly
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Zeynep Nilhan Gürkan
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Bilel Neji
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Samer AlKork
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Julien Moussa H. Barakat
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Short-reach fiber optical links employing intensity modulation (IM) at the transmitter (Tx) and direct detection (DD) at the receiver (Rx), suffer from linear and nonlinear sources of impairments due to the interaction of chromatic dispersion (CD) with DD. In this article, joint electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) at the Tx, using two distinct Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) based approaches, and at the Rx, using a functional link neural network (FLNN) equalizer is demonstrated for IM/DD transmission. The first Tx approach utilizes the modified iterative GS algorithm, which partially mitigate linear and nonlinear sources of inter-symbol interference (ISI). The second Tx pre-EDC approach only pre-compensates for the linear power fading effect through implementing a GS based finite impulse response (FIR) filter. At the Rx, a T/2-spaced or T-spaced adaptive post-feed forward equalizer (FFE) is employed to fully compensate residual chromatic dispersion prior to attempting nonlinear equalization. Furthermore, a Volterra nonlinear equalizer (VNLE) is introduced to benchmark the performance and complexity of the FLNN, Subsequently, either a FLNN or a VNLE are utilized for nonlinear system identification and subsequent post-equalization mitigating uncompensated nonlinear sources of ISI. The FLNN nonlinear taps resulting from the functional expansion block are optimized using the  recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. The Tx-FIR and Rx-FLNN enable 112 Gbit/s non-return to zero (NRZ) on off keying (OOK) transmission over 20 km of single mode fiber (SMF) and 112 Gbit/s 4- level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission over 10 km of SMF. It is shown that the use of Tx pre-EDC reduces the complexity of the required equalization at the Rx. In addition, the FLNN was found to offer a 74% reduction in computational complexity relative to the third-order VNLE.
May 2023Published in Optics Communications volume 534 on pages 129325. 10.1016/j.optcom.2023.129325