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Hybrid Models for Knowledge Tracing: a Systematic Literature Review
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  • Andrea Zanellati ,
  • Daniele Di Mitri ,
  • maurizio Gabbrielli ,
  • Olivia Levrini
Andrea Zanellati
University of Bologna

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Daniele Di Mitri
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maurizio Gabbrielli
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Olivia Levrini
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Knowledge Tracing is a well-known problem often tackled through purely data-driven approaches. In recent years, many advances have been made in research with various machine learning and deep learning techniques. Despite their satisfactory performance, they have some pitfalls, e.g. modeling one skill at a time, ignoring the relationships between different skills, or inconsistency for the predictions, i.e. sudden spikes and falls across time steps. For this reason, hybrid machine-learning techniques have also been explored. With this systematic literature review, we aim to illustrate this field’s state of the art. Specifically, we want to identify the potential and the frontiers in integrating prior knowledge sources in the traditional machine learning pipeline as a supplement to the normally considered data. We applied a qualitative analysis to distill a taxonomy with three dimensions: knowledge source, knowledge representation, and knowledge integration. Exploiting this taxonomy, we also conducted a quantitative analysis to detect the most common approaches.