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CNT-PUFs: Highly Robust and Heat-Tolerant Carbon-Nanotube-Based Physical Unclonable Functions for Stable Key Generation
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  • Simon Böttger ,
  • Florian Frank ,
  • Nikolaos Athanasios Anagnostopoulos ,
  • Nico Mexis ,
  • Ali Mohamed ,
  • Martin Hartmann ,
  • Tolga Arul ,
  • Sascha Hermann ,
  • Stefan Katzenbeisser
Simon Böttger
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Florian Frank
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Nikolaos Athanasios Anagnostopoulos
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Nico Mexis
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Ali Mohamed
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Martin Hartmann
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Tolga Arul
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Sascha Hermann
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Stefan Katzenbeisser
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In this work, we explore a highly robust and unique Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based on the stochastic assembly of single-walled Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs) integrated within a wafer-level technology. Our work demonstrates that the proposed CNT-based PUFs are exceptionally robust with an average fractional intra-device Hamming distance of 0.01 not only at room temperature, but also under temperatures in the range from 23 degrees Celsius to 120 degrees Celsius. As the number of unstable bits in the examined implementation is extremely low, our devices allow a lightweight and simple error correction, just by a selection of stable cells, thereby diminishing the need for complex error correction. Through a significant number of tests, we demonstrate the capability of novel nanomaterial devices to serve as highly efficient hardware security primitives.