loading page

The RISES System: An Innovative and Activity-Based Closed-Loop Framework for Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation and Recovery
  • +11
  • Shirin Madarshahian ,
  • Tatiana Guerrero ,
  • Phyo Thuta Aung ,
  • Kristin Gustafson ,
  • James S. Harrop ,
  • Dana R. Johnson ,
  • Mehdi Khantan ,
  • Yunsoo Lee ,
  • Caio Matias ,
  • Michael McCurdy ,
  • MaryJane Mulcahey ,
  • Alessandro Napoli ,
  • Alex Vaccaro ,
  • Mijail Serruya
Shirin Madarshahian
Raphael Center for Neurorestoration

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Tatiana Guerrero
Author Profile
Phyo Thuta Aung
Author Profile
Kristin Gustafson
Author Profile
James S. Harrop
Author Profile
Dana R. Johnson
Author Profile
Mehdi Khantan
Author Profile
Yunsoo Lee
Author Profile
Caio Matias
Author Profile
Michael McCurdy
Author Profile
MaryJane Mulcahey
Author Profile
Alessandro Napoli
Author Profile
Alex Vaccaro
Author Profile
Mijail Serruya
Author Profile


As spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the communication between neural circuitry, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord may improve the rewiring and recovery of the affected pathways. Recent advancements in transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) have shown the potential for neurological enhancements in individuals living with SCI. In this study, we introduce the Reynolds Innovative Spinal Electrical Stimulation (RISES) technology, a person-tailored, task-specific stimulation system with real-time optimization capabilities enabled by its multi-data acquisition and closed-loop capabilities. We piloted the safety and feasibility of the RISES system by implementing the developed technology as part of a clinical trial intervention aimed to apply closed-loop tSCS during activity-based training. The successful use of RISES confirmed its safe and feasible closed-loop tSCS methods, resulting in measurable immediate improvements in proximal muscle activation and with no adverse physiological effects being observed in the preliminary data.