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Quantifying System Inertia and Primary Frequency Response Residual Sources of Low-inertia Power System: A Comprehensive SBCM-PFA Approach
  • Khwrwmdao Basumatary ,
  • Anup Shukla
Khwrwmdao Basumatary
Indian Institute of Technology Jammu

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Anup Shukla
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This paper presents a comprehensive framework, which includes a quantification procedure for various Frequency Response Residual-Sources (FRR-Ss), including System Inertia, $M_{sys}$ ( = 2H), System Self-regulation ($D_{self}$), Governor Response ($FR_{Gov.}$), and Effective Governor-Droop ($R_{eff.droop}$) performance. This framework leverages Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data, capturing sequence-of-events frequency dynamics from a critical location following a cascaded tripping event. Within this framework, a time duration of 20 sec, starting from the onset of the disturbance, employs suitable approaches to analyze measured frequency in two network cases: ‘Case-I’ real-time simulation in IEEE-24 bus system (RSCAD/RTDS) and ‘Case-II’ real-frequency event measurements from the Indian power system for the aforementioned FRR-Ss quantification. The quantified results for ‘Case-I’ are as follows: $M_{sys}$ = 20.9855 sec, $D_{self}$ = 2.477 p.u, $FR_{Gov.}$ = 10.680 p.u, and $R_{eff.droop}$ = 9.363\%, and results for ‘Case-II’ are 5.0289 sec, 1.2116 p.u, 1.094 p.u, and 91.4076\% respectively. This effort enhances an improved understanding of system frequency dynamics and estimating the frequency response requirements during cascaded tripping events of low-inertia power systems. Finally, the paper provides insights into operational measures and highlights various challenges faced.