Exploding AI-Generated Deepfakes and Misinformation: A Threat to Global
Concern in the 21st Century
Deepfakes the term was coined in 2018 by a Reddit user who created a
Reddit forum dedicated to the creation and use of deep learning software
for synthetically face swapping female celebrities into pornographic
videos. According to Sumsub’s research in 2023, the top-5 identity fraud
types in 2023 are AI-powered fraud, money muling networks, fake IDs,
account takeovers, and forced verification. The country most attacked by
deepfakes is Spain; the most forged document worldwide is the UAE
passport, whereas Latin America is the region where fraud has increased
in every country. On November 24, 2023, the Union Government of India
issued an advisory to social media intermediaries to identify
misinformation and deepfakes.
A deepfake refers to a specific kind of synthetic media where a person
in an image or video is swapped with another person’s likeness.
AI-generated deepfakes have emerged as a complex and pervasive challenge
in today’s digital landscape, enabling the creation of remarkably
convincing yet falsified multimedia content. This review paper examines
the multifaceted landscape of deepfakes, encompassing their
technological underpinnings, societal implications, detection
methodologies, and ethical considerations.
The review aggregates and synthesizes a broad array of scholarly
articles, studies, and reports to elucidate the diverse typologies of
deepfakes, including face-swapping, voice cloning, and synthetic media,
while delineating the intricate methodologies employed in their
fabrication. This review culminates in an overview of future directions
and recommendations, advocating for proactive measures to counter the
escalating threat posed by AI-generated deepfakes.