loading page

Spiral Development for Non-Software Product and System Engineering
  • Isha Amod Gujarathi,
  • William R Norris,
  • Albert Patterson
Isha Amod Gujarathi
William Michael Barnes '64 Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Texas A&M University
William R Norris
Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana
Albert Patterson
Faculty of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering Technology, Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile


This article explored the spiral development process, sometimes called "evolutionary acquisition" in military sectors, and reviewed major non-software applications in the engineering literature. The spiral development process was originally developed for the design of software while minimizing and managing risk, but the principles can be applied to a wide variety of systems engineering problems where risk management is a priority. The major application domains discussed in this review were product design and development, robotics, agriculture and construction systems, product-service and human-technology systems, medical systems and devices, military and aerospace systems, and data management, enterprise systems, and information technology systems. This exploration and accompanying discussion is useful for system designers, systems engineering educators, and other major stakeholders as it shows successful applications in a wide variety of non-software technology sectors and provides guidance for application in new areas. Several new and expanded application sectors were identified during the review.
28 Feb 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
04 Mar 2024Published in TechRxiv