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Closed-loop Manual Control with Tactile or Visual Feedback under Wireless Link Impairments
  • +4
  • Dr. Suraj Suman,
  • Pranav Mamidanna,
  • Jimmy Jessen Nielsen,
  • Federico Chiariotti,
  • Čedomir Stefanović,
  • Strahinja Došen,
  • Petar Popovski
Dr. Suraj Suman

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Pranav Mamidanna
Jimmy Jessen Nielsen
Federico Chiariotti
Čedomir Stefanović
Strahinja Došen
Petar Popovski


The emergence of low-latency wireless connectivity has opened significant new possibilities for human-machine interaction (HMI) systems, in which a human operator (HO) manipulates a remotely located robot or controls an object. However, data transmission, particularly over wireless links, suffers from impairments, such as random latency fluctuations and packet loss, affecting the overall control performance of an HMI system. In this study, we evaluate the impact of wireless impairments for a closed-loop joystick-controlled trajectory tracking task with two different types of feedback, visual and tactile. Wireless links are used both in the uplink (transmission of command signal) and the downlink (transmission of feedback signal). The effects of wireless impairments were incorporated by artificially introducing latency, jitter, and packet loss, both in the uplink and the downlink. As a baseline, we tested the system in ideal conditions with no latency and packet loss, comparing performance with configurations with packet loss combined with constant latency, as well as real-life measured latency profiles over wireless networks. The results obtained across 12 ablebodied participants showed that the tracking performance was better with visual feedback than with tactile feedback across all impairment conditions. However, the random fluctuations around the mean latency did not affect performance significantly.
29 May 2024Submitted to TechRxiv
04 Jun 2024Published in TechRxiv